2016 Spring Show is Almost Here!!!



Academy of Art University welcomes you to attend its annual Spring Show and Student Showcase to experience the work of our best emerging talent in all areas of art and design.


Opening Night: Monday May 23rd

7:00 – 9:00 PM

Getting to the Show

Complimentary shuttles – pick up at 180 New Montgomery Street at Howard Street
Shuttles will loop every 15 minutes between Spring Show and 180 New Montgomery Street
Shuttles begin at 6:30 PM

The nearest parking garage to shuttle pick up is: 5th & Mission Parking Garage

Arrival via Taxi, Uber or Lyft – the event the venue address is:

2225 Jerrold Ave
San Francisco, CA 94124
(click to view map and directions)


Ongoing Student Showcase: May 24th — Ongoing

10:00 AM to 5:00 PM
Closed Sundays & Holidays

Complimentary shuttles – pick up at 180 New Montgomery Street at Howard Street
Shuttles will loop every hour between the Student Showcase and 180 New Montgomery
Shuttles begin at 9:35 AM

The nearest parking garage to shuttle pick up is: 5th & Mission Parking Garage

Arrival via Taxi, Uber or Lyft – the event the venue address is:

2225 Jerrold Ave
San Francisco, CA 94124
(click to view map and directions)

Posted in EVENTS, NEWS | Comments closed

Resilient Cities: Beirut


Makram Younis is an online MFA student living in Lebanon. Makram has been working on a case study for one of his classes that focusses on Martyrs’ Square in Beirut, Lebanon and he felt inspired to share more of his story with our community at the AAU School of Landscape Architecture. Makram is seeing great transformations occur in his country. Artists, designers, and architects of the natural world co-create an identity of their home and celebrate their culture in the “urban jungle” of Beirut.

Makram writes…

“My name is Makram Younis, and I’m from Lebanon. Only a few of you may know about my country and so I wanted to share this video showing you the lives of artists living in Lebanon. As for the natural landscape of Lebanon, the country has two chains of mountains from north till south known by the various ecological life and forests. On the other hand, the cities, especially Beirut, became concrete jungle with very few parks and trees. I’m from the mountains. I was born and lived in a big 250 year old house made of stone. My connection to nature is so strong it’s as if it is my home. This is what made me interested in learning about Landscape Architecture and learn how to improve landscapes to reconnect us with our original home. Cities are dramatically changing the world into to concrete jungles without realizing the importance of Landscape.”



Posted in NEWS | Comments closed

The New Landscape Declaration at Penn Design


Posted in NEWS | Comments closed

Pershing Square Competition in LA

AD Classics: Pershing Square,© Legorreta + Legorreta, photograph by Lourdes Legorreta

Pershing Square Renew, a public/private partnership formed by Los Angeles City Council member José Huizar, launched an international design competition to re-imagine the five-acre urban park at the heart of downtown Los Angeles.  In September, design firms from around the world were invited to compete to be selected as a design partner to re-envisioning Pershing Square, Los Angeles’ oldest park in the heart of DTLA, into the city’s town square.

Archdaily.com published a concise history of this urban space, also touching upon the challenges faced by the square today: http://www.archdaily.com/776828/ad-classics-pershing-square-ricardo-legorreta-plus-laurie-olin

 AD Classics: Pershing Square,© Legorreta + Legorreta, photograph by Lourdes Legorreta

On April 28, 2016, the 4 finalists for the Pershing Square Renew design competition presented their proposals for re-envisioning Pershing Square. Watch the finalists live presentations here: http://pershingsquarenew.com/competition/


Agence Ter and Team:


James Corner Field Operations with Frederick Fisher and Partners:


SWA | Morphosis

Which design did you like best, and why? Which aspects of the presentation grabbed your attention? How did the designers paint a vivid picture of the space they reimagined?


Part of Agence Ter's design for Pershing Square in downtown Los Angeles.

Posted in DESIGN, OPPORTUNITIES | Comments closed

Design teams including morphosis and wHY re-envision downtown LA’s pershing square

design teams including morphosis and wHY re-envision downtown LA's pershing square
(above) proposal by agence ter and team
all images courtesy of pershing square renew

Pershing square is a public park in downtown los angeles, california, one square block in size. in september 2015, pershing square renew — a non-profit collaboration between government, community, and business leaders — invited design firms from around the world to submit proposals to re-envision the space as a functional and accessible town square. according to the organizers, the aim of the contest is ‘to ensure that pershing square is an authentic reflection of downtown LA’s thriving renaissance by creating a world-class public space for those who live in, work in, visit, and love DTLA.

the four selected teams are as follows: agence ter and team; james corner field operations with frederick fisher & partners; SWA with morphosis; and wHY with civitas. the proposed designs have now been revealed, with the winning design set to be announced in mid-may, 2016. see each of the schemes in more detail below.

the scheme uses the landscape as a basis for designing the city
proposal by agence ter and team

for its proposal, french firm agence ter has teamed up with — among others — SALT landscape architects to present a scheme which uses the landscape as a basis for designing the city. the scheme proposes to take down the walls and flatted the lifted edges of the existing park to reconnect pershing square with its immediate context. ‘we envision a radically open part that welcomes all of los angeles without hesitation, embracing residents and visitors alike,’ says the team.

video detailing the proposal by agence ter and team

the design proposes to take down the walls and flatted the lifted edges of the existing park
proposal by agence ter and team

the design approach seeks to recreate the ‘green garden oasis’ that characterized the original square
proposal by james corner field operations with frederick fisher & partners

led by james corner field operations, this design approach seeks to recreate the ‘green garden oasis’ that characterized the original square, providing generous social spaces. these areas would be used for everyday strolling, relaxation and play, as well as for special events, markets, festivals, arts and performance. the aim is to create an open space specific to downtown los angeles, capturing both its historical significance, as well as its future potential as an ever-evolving, cosmopolitan cultural centerpiece — a green platform for contemporary civic life.

video detailing the proposal by james corner field operations with frederick fisher & partners

generous social spaces are provided
proposal by james corner field operations with frederick fisher & partners

the scheme seeks to capture the site’s historical significance
proposal by james corner field operations with frederick fisher & partners

an aerial view of the team’s ‘flexible’ proposal
proposal by SWA with morphosis

‘sustainable design and flexible programming lie at the heart of our design approach,’ says the team that includes SWA and morphosis. the proposal asserts that the square will need to be many things for many people — during both day and night hours. embracing this need for versatility, the proposal forms a safe public space, a local spot with dining and art to meet and mingle, a place to play, a mobility hub.

video detailing the proposal by SWA with morphosis

embracing a need for versatility, the proposal serves a number of different functions
proposal by SWA with morphosis

visitors are free to meander through the public green space
proposal by SWA with morphosis

the approach provides a destination for socializing and exercising
proposal by wHY with civitas

led by architect kulapat yantrasast and landscape architect mark johnson, design firms wHY and civitas joined together to address the challenges and opportunities of pershing square. their approach is to provide a destination for socializing, exercising, playing, learning and relaxing. ‘we envision an exemplary model for how to transform this public piece of LA into the heart of the city,’ states the team.

video detailing the proposal by wHY with civitas

the design provides 133% more tree canopy and shade than the current park
proposal by wHY with civitas

the winning submission will be announced in mid-may, 2016
proposal by wHY with civitas


Posted in DESIGN | Comments closed

Hargreaves Associates wins Annual National Design Award for Landscape Architecture


Louisville Waterfront Park (Louisville, Kentucky, 2003) by Hargreaves Associates | Credit: ©John Gollings

Today, Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Director Caroline Baumann announced the winners of the 2016 National Design Awards, recognizing excellence and innovation across a variety of disciplines in 11 categories. Now in its 17th year, the annual awards were established to promote design as a vital humanistic tool in shaping the world.

Hargreaves Associates has been awarded the Annual National Design Award for Landscape Architecture. Other recipients include Moshe Safdie for Lifetime Achievement; Make It Right for Director’s Award; Bruce Mau for Design Mind; Center for Urban Pedagogy for Corporate & Institutional Achievement; Marlon Blackwell Architects for Architecture Design; Geoff McFetridge for Communication Design; Opening Ceremony for Fashion Design; Tellart for Interaction Design; Studio O+A for Interior Design; and Ammunition for Product Design.


Haihe Waterfront (TianJin, China, 2012) by Hargreaves Associates | Credit: Zhuomin Peng ©Zhuomin Peng

“The National Design Awards are a vibrant component of Cooper Hewitt’s education arm through which the museum engages year round with design lovers of all ages across the United States and throughout the world,” Baumann said. “This year’s class of winners reflect design’s remarkable empathy for contemporary social concerns: from promoting workplace productivity to preserving vernacular traditions to encouraging civic engagement. These designers and design firms cross disciplinary boundaries, explore innovative materials and develop new models of problem-solving in pursuit of these goals.”

First Lady Michelle Obama serves as the Honorary Patron for this year’s National Design Awards, which was first launched at the White House in 2000 as a project of the White House Millennium Council.

The winners will be honored at a gala during National Design Week, Oct. 15–23. Launched in 2006, this educational initiative makes great design widely accessible to the public through interactive events and programs for students, teachers, corporate professionals, designers and Cooper Hewitt’s dedicated audience. Programs will be posted at cooperhewitt.org/events.

Image Credits | as noted – Courtesy of Copper Hewitt


Posted in DESIGN, NEWS | Comments closed

Community Vision Plan set to reinvent the Brooklyn Strand


Gateway to Brooklyn

New York City is already home to many of the world’s greatest public spaces including Central Park, Prospect Park and of course, the High Line. So when Mayor de Blasio announced a set of initiatives to “reinvent the Brooklyn Strand” – a series of underutilized and disconnected public spaces and City-owned lots – a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity presented itself.  This project will not only add another name to that accomplished list, but more importantly create a grand gateway befitting the County of Kings.


Brooklyn Strand concept rendering


Borough Hall Park


Borough Hall Park

Over the past two years, residents, business leaders, elected officials, numerous City agencies – including the Department of Parks and Recreation and the Department of Transportation – and community groups – including Brooklyn Bridge Park among others, worked together to develop the Brooklyn Strand Community Vision Plan. All in all, more than 250 stakeholders took part, in the form of countless meetings, numerous public workshops, and 50 site walkthroughs.


Korean War Veterans Plaza and Cadman Plaza East | ©Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects


Cadman Plaza Park

Led by WXY Architecture + Urban Design, this herculean effort has resulted in recommendations aimed at transforming the quality of public spaces in order to better connect Downtown Brooklyn, DUMBO, the Brooklyn Navy Yard, and surrounding neighborhoods while improving waterfront access.


Anchorage Plaza


Anchorage Market

The following recommendations have been handed over to the City, now charged with determining which, if not all, of these recommendations can and will be set into motion to become a reality.


Brooklyn War Memorial & Cadman Plaza Park


Brooklyn Bridge Plaza


Gateway to Brooklyn

The recommendations include:

  • A new “Gateway to Brooklyn” off the Brooklyn Bridge
  • Reopening of the long-closed Brooklyn War Memorial to the public
  • Creation of a market at Anchorage Plaza
  • Improvements to Commodore Barry Park
  • Improved connections across surrounding neighborhoods by examining opportunities to realign portions of the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway  ramps
  • Transformations of and better pedestrian connections between the existing series of parks, plazas and open spaces that include widening sidewalks  enhancing bike networks among others
  • Installation of innovative public art throughout the Brooklyn Strand

Bridge Parks


Trinity Park


Navy and Concord Streets


Navy and Tillary Streets

While the Brooklyn Strand is still in a stage of infancy, the tremendous commitment and creative thinking from the community demonstrates the incredible opportunity to transform this space into the world-class gateway that Brooklyn deserves.


Park Avenue Crossing at St Edwards Street

Images Credit | WXY Architecture + Urban Design unless noted otherwise

Find out more at Downtown Brooklyn 


Posted in DESIGN, NEWS | Comments closed

Pier 55 to start construction in the Summer!


Recently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers decided to modify its existing permit to allow the reconstruction of Pier 54, now known as Pier 55, in Hudson River Park, paving the way for The Hudson River Park Trust (HRPT) and Pier55 Inc. to move forward with construction this summer.

Pier 55 will provide 2.7 acres of new public park and performance space in Hudson River Park at West 13th Street. In addition to enhancing the park’s robust environmental, arts and educational programming, the Pier 55 program will foster new partnerships with schools and will provide opportunities for emerging local talent.

Pier55: A New Green Space on the Hudson from Pier55 on Vimeo.

With an undulating design created by Thomas Heatherwick and landscape architect Signe Nielsen, Pier 55 will be, first and foremost, a public park pier. It will include walking paths, rolling hills, seating areas, and open lawns for recreation. The park will provide many places for people to do what they love to do in parks, including enjoying water views, people watching, walking, jogging, and relaxing in a peaceful outdoor space. The project also will provide a new home for art, cultural and educational events, and performances. Its design expressly allows a wide range of simultaneous experiences and concurrent uses; while some park-goers are attending a performance, others will be enjoying recreational activities elsewhere on the pier.


“As stewards of the Hudson River, the Trust worked carefully to reconstruct Pier 54 in a way that would be respectful of the environment,” said Madelyn Wils, President & CEO of the Hudson River Park Trust. “The Pier 55 project is a shining example of what innovative public-private partnerships can accomplish for the good of the city, and now that the regulatory agencies have issued their permits, we are excited to be in a position to start construction.”

“So many in our community have lined up behind this fantastic project, and today, we can celebrate, because Pier55 is moving forward,” said Mike Novogratz, Chair of the Friends of Hudson River Park. “Today is a day to look forward: to the project’s construction, and to its completion, when we’ll be lucky to have one of the great park piers of the city — anywhere, really — right here in our backyard, to share with all New Yorkers for years to come.”

The pier will be open to the public throughout the year, with the same operating hours as the rest of Hudson River Park.  Like all of the public park piers in Hudson River Park, Pier 55 will be maintained by HRPT staff.

“The approval of Pier 55 is a win for all New Yorkers who want to enjoy more quality public park space in our city,” said Tupper Thomas, executive director of New Yorkers for Parks. “HRPT and Pier55 Inc. are to be commended for their commitment to transparency and community engagement throughout a rigorous review process.”

Images Credit | Courtesy of The Hudson River Park Trust (HRPT) and Pier55 Inc.


Posted in DESIGN | Comments closed

A Visit with a Legend, Whose Story Is Their Own

This week’s blog post comes from Jennifer Greene, Associate Director, Community Engagement Program with the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy.

On March 2, the National Park’s Community Shuttle brought the Bayview Network for Elders to Rosie the Riveter National Historic Park. The group of 35 African American women had long wanted to visit the Park and meet Ranger Betty Soskin, the woman whose life story reflected their own. Just like her, they were the daughters and wives whose lives revolved around a shipyard just across the Bay. As it turned out, the visit was as meaningful for Betty as it was for them.

The ladies filed into the visitor center, quietly, smiling, orienting themselves, and there was Betty behind the desk and in uniform. I could feel the mutual familiarity and comfort, the warmth of the connection between the group and Betty, who shared, “It’s so nice to see people who look like me in my park.”

She also shared with us her history, her story, and communicated in prose how her story was emblematic of so many other lives. One Bayview woman shared how she too had moved from Louisiana with her husband and two-year old daughter to work in the shipyards, the same daughter who sat a few rows in front of her. She provided the truth behind the “Greatest Generation,” how it’s more layered and complex, and fraught – how the truth of integration had been whitewashed. As some women noted on the shuttle ride over, “Rosie was a white woman.” Black women had always worked – families had always needed two incomes. She shared how, between her, her mother, and her grandmother, all of whom were alive at one time together, spanned generations that lived through slavery to the challenges we still face today. It’s a story she graciously describes as belonging to us all – nobody more than the women in that room.

It didn’t cross my mind that Betty might need a reminder of her importance, her connection to history, and women of her generation. She wrote in her blog (cbreauxspeaks) of our visit that day,

“The 35 lovely and lively African American women took photos to share with their families, and I felt affirmed and appreciated in my work by their enthusiasm. It was clear that the history being shared belonged to us all, and that we were united — not only as American citizens whose life experiences varied greatly — that we were all survivors of a badly broken social system, but that we were still one people willing to share love beyond any previously limiting boundaries…….. But maybe it’s work that I, as a primary source of that important Era, am best suited to do…. and how brilliant of Life to have set me down in this space and time with a whole busload of loving Sistahs!”

We all need to feel connected, to be reminded of our place in the world. In this case, all one group of women needed was a ride to meet the woman and Ranger who communicates the power and significance of their story to the world.

To follow Betty’s blog go to cbreauxspeaks.
Go to YouTube to see Betty’s 4-minute video on the truth of the “Great Generation” Of Lost Conversations.
To learn more about the Community Shuttle Program, contact Jennifer Greene, jgreene@parksconservancy.org or visit the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy website.



Posted in NEWS | Comments closed

The Secret School on Crissy Field in World War II

From Park E-ventures, May 2016

The Secret School on Crissy Field in World War II

By Michael Hsu

They didn’t know why they were there.

On a November day in 1941—about one month before the Pearl Harbor attack plunged Japan and America into war—a group of Japanese American soldiers gathered at a dilapidated air-mail hangar, cryptically signed “Laundry Depot” on Crissy Field. A few of the men might have been bemused. Most were puzzled. And some were worried.

“We were milling around Building 640: ‘What are we doing here? What’s all this about?’ A whole bunch of Niseis [American-born children of Japanese immigrants]. ‘What are they going to do to us?’” recalled Maj. Masaji “Gene” Uratsu, in an oral history video.

These enlisted men were chosen as the first class of a top-secret school—one that the Army was so keen to keep clandestine that the soldiers were forbidden to tell even their family members, under penalty of court-martial.

Building 640, c. 1941

Building 640, c. 1941

It was a language school, intended to train its students in Japanese translation and interpretation for military purposes. By the end of World War II, the school would produce thousands of linguist soldiers who, collectively, would serve with valor and distinction at every battle and every campaign in the Pacific theater. And it would sow the seeds for the famed Defense Language Institute in Monterey.

But at Crissy Field on that fall day in 1941, at least one of the bewildered young men couldn’t even find the door to the decrepit building.

“I reported to the hangar and I couldn’t even believe this was a school to begin with,” said Col. Thomas T. Sakamoto, in his oral history.

A Makeshift Operation

The Fourth Army Intelligence School—or Military Intelligence Service (MIS) School—was the first of its kind. It was founded on a paltry $2,000 budget, with scrap-heap furnishings, mimeographed copies of rare textbooks, and four Nisei civilian instructors who had never been teachers before.

“We had no experience, there were no models, there were no guidelines for the establishment of a Japanese language intelligence school,” recalled Shigeya Kihara, one of the original teachers who shared his story with author David Swift. “Nobody had any idea what to do.”

Their students—58 Nisei with varying competence in Japanese and two Caucasians—were young men in their early 20s. The headmaster John Aiso—a civilian with no military rank or authority—maintained discipline by threatening to write letters to their parents. Under Aiso’s iron-willed leadership, the men studied 10 hours a day; they spent most of their time in the cold, drafty hangar, sleeping in the spartan barracks or bent over their books in the classrooms. In the early days, their furniture consisted of overturned boxes and crates.

Cutaway model of Building 640 at the MIS Historic Learning Center

Cutaway model of Building 640 at the MIS Historic Learning Center, showing barracks and classrooms

“You were really tired—you sleep well,” recalled Lt. Col. Arthur M. Kaneko, in the oral history video.

But there were also unscheduled hours—time for playing sports, listening to the radio, visiting family, and donning civilian clothes for trips into Japantown or Chinatown.

Everything changed on the morning of December 7.

A Time of Prejudice

In the wake of Pearl Harbor, the MIS school’s focus turned sharply toward military affairs and combat.

“The curriculum became intense and our attitude became different,” Sakamoto said.

Even as their studies doubled in pace and rigor, the young men had a new trauma to contend with: President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Executive Order 9066, issued on February 1942, which paved the way for the eventual relocation of 120,000 Japanese Americans to incarceration camps.

According to Rosalyn Tonai, executive director of the National Japanese American Historical Society (NJAHS), the students—and the faculty—feared for their families. Some of them even defied orders to stay put—slipping away to see their parents before their loved ones were rounded up at assembly centers, like the Tanforan horserace track.

“It was heart-wrenching for them to see their parents in horse stalls and behind barbed wire,” Tonai says, pointing out that the men had to endure such an indignity—while wearing the uniform of the U.S. Army.

Studying at the MIS school in December 1941

Studying at the MIS school in December 1941: Steve Yamamoto (far left), Kazuo Kawaguchi (second from left), Masanori Minamoto (back to camera). Photo by Gene Uratsu, courtesy of the National Japanese American Historical Society

Still, despite prejudice in society at large and pressures from within the Japanese American community, the soldiers grit their teeth and continued to do their duty and follow orders.

“It wasn’t easy, but they did obey,” Tonai says. “In a way, some of them felt that their families were held hostage—and in fact the whole community was being held hostage—and that they needed to prove themselves in battle and do what they felt was right.”

In May 1942, after the original one-year program was urgently truncated to six months, 45 linguist soldiers graduated from the MIS school—and almost all of them were immediately deployed to the front.

That first class was the only one to study and train at Building 640 on Crissy Field. With paranoia rampant on the West Coast, the school was relocated deep to the interior of the country—to a former homeless men’s camp in Minnesota.

Fighting in the Pacific War

The language school at Camp Savage—and later Fort Snelling—would eventually graduate more than 6,000 linguist soldiers, through the end of the Allied occupation of Japan in 1952.

Unlike their Nisei counterparts who famously served in the 442nd Infantry Regiment (an almost entirely Japanese American regiment that became the most decorated unit of its kind in U.S. military history), these specially trained men served alone, in pairs, or in small groups—attached to the major combat units in the Pacific.

They translated enemy documents, intercepted radio transmissions, conducted psychological warfare, and interrogated Japanese POWs with such compassion and expertise that enemy combatants often were taken aback at their humanity.

At the same time, they also had to allay their comrades’ unjustly lingering fears and doubts. Commanding officers openly questioned the presence of these Japanese Americans. In fact, many of these MIS Nisei had bodyguards assigned to them—as protection against their fellow troops.

Gene Uratsu, in sharing his story with photographer Tom Graves, recalled: “Our loyalty was questioned. A Presidio graduate…was on the front line in New Guinea interrogating a POW. A Caucasian captain came by and said, ‘What are you doing? You’re a goddamn fool! Why are you even here when your family is locked up?’ The guy looks up and says, ‘Sir, I’m just doing my job.’ That’s what we did.”

And what a job they did—on the battlefield and in the transitional administration of post-war Japan. But only recently have the contributions of these Japanese Americans been recognized by the government that once locked up their families. Given the classified nature of the program, the very existence of the MIS school was not acknowledged until the 1970s. In 2010, the Nisei soldiers of the MIS, along with the 100th Battalion and the 442nd, were awarded the Congressional Gold Medal—the nation’s highest honor.

A Legacy Lives On

Achieved in secret and under a cloud of undue suspicion, the accomplishments of these brave Nisei are now memorialized along Crissy Field, where the story began. Building 640 has been rebuilt—with the concrete floor, windows, and ceiling elements from the original structure—and is now home to the Military Intelligence Service Historic Learning Center.

Learning Center

The rebuilt Building 640, now the MIS Historic Learning Center

“It’s the only historic remains of what had happened 75 years ago, and we wanted to make sure we could tell that story in the actual spot where they served,” explains Tonai of the NJAHS, the organization that spearheaded the effort to save the building and preserve the MIS soldiers’ legacy.

Tom Sakamoto, the last surviving member of the first MIS class, passed away just weeks before the opening of the reconstructed Learning Center. However, the powerful lessons of his story—the story of so many Japanese American soldiers in WWII—live on.

“We can’t use prejudices against people from different backgrounds, and assume they have certain mentalities or loyalties to foreign countries because their ancestors or families are from that country,” Tonai says. “We should respect people and allow them to share their experiences—and understand them for who they are.”

The MIS Nisei were fine soldiers of the U.S. Army, serving their country when it needed them the most, with duty, honor, and unshakeable patriotism.

That’s why they were there, gathered at an unmarked door to a mislabeled old airplane hangar, in November of 1941.


To learn more, visit the MIS Historic Learning Center at Building 640 on Crissy Field, open Saturdays and Sundays from noon to 5 pm ($10 admission; free for veterans, children under 12, and NJAHS members). Tours available by special arrangement, Wednesday through Friday. For details, visit the website.

For an in-depth, authoritative history, read First Class: Nisei Linguists in World War II, by David Swift, Jr., the son of an original MIS student.

Banner photo: Kaye K. Sakamoto, Mas Minamoto, Gene Uratsu. Photo courtesy of the National Japanese American Historical Society
Thumbnail photo: MIS classroom. Photo courtesy of the Park Archives and Records Center


Posted in NEWS | Comments closed